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US Federal Codes 
New ADA Regulations regarding: 
“Service Animals,”

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
28 CFR Part 35 ​CRT Docket No. 105; AG Order No. RIN 1190-AA46

Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and
Local Government Services


§ 35.104 Definitions.

Service animal means any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability. Other species of animals, whether wild or domestic, trained or untrained, are not service animals for the purposes of this definition.

The work or tasks performed by a service animal must be directly related to the handler´s disability. Examples of work or tasks include, but are not limited to, assisting individuals who are blind or have low vision with navigation and other tasks, alerting individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to the presence of people or sounds, providing nonviolent protection or rescue work, pulling a wheelchair, assisting an individual during a seizure, alerting individuals to the presence of allergens, retrieving items such as medicine or the telephone, providing physical support and assistance with balance and stability to individuals with mobility disabilities, and helping persons with psychiatric and neurological disabilities by preventing or interrupting impulsive or destructive behaviors. The crime deterrent effects of an animal´s presence and the provision of emotional support, well-being, comfort, or companionship do not constitute work or tasks for the purposes of this definition.

§ 35.136 Service animals


(a) General.
​Generally, a public entity shall modify its policies, practices, or procedures to permit the use of a service animal by an individual with a disability.


(b) Exceptions.
​A public entity may ask an individual with a disability to remove a service animal from the premises if--
​(1) The animal is out of control and the animal´s handler does not take effective action to control it; or
​(2) The animal is not housebroken.

(c) If an animal is properly excluded.

​If a public entity properly excludes a service animal under § 35.136(b), it shall give the individual with a disability the opportunity to participate in the service, program, or activity without having the service animal on the premises.

(d) Animal under handler´s control.

​A service animal shall be under the control of its handler. A service animal shall have a harness, leash, or other tether, unless either the handler is unable because of a disability to use a harness, leash, or other tether, or the use of a harness, leash, or other tether would interfere with the service animal´s safe, effective performance of work or tasks, in which case the service animal must be otherwise under the handler´s control (e.g., voice control, signals, or other effective means).

(e) Care or supervision.
​A public entity is not responsible for the care or supervision of a
service animal.

(f) Inquiries.
​A public entity shall not ask about the nature or extent of a person´s disability, but may make two inquiries to determine whether an animal qualifies as a service animal. A public entity may ask if the animal is required because of a disability and what work or task the animal has been trained to perform. A public entity shall not require documentation, such as proof that the animal has been certified, trained, or licensed as a service animal. Generally, a public entity may not make these inquiries about a service animal when it is readily apparent that an animal is trained to do work or perform tasks for an individual with a disability (e.g., the dog is observed guiding an individual who is blind or has low vision, pulling a person´s wheelchair, or providing assistance with stability or balance to an individual with an observable mobility disability).

(g) Access to areas of a public entity.
​Individuals with disabilities shall be permitted to be accompanied by their service animals in all areas of a public entity´s facilities where members of the public, participants in services, programs or activities, or invitees, as relevant, are allowed to go.

(h) Surcharges.
A public entity shall not ask or require an individual with a disability to pay a surcharge, even if people accompanied by pets are required to pay fees, or to comply with other requirements generally not applicable to people without pets. If a public entity normally charges individuals for the damage they cause, an individual with a disability may be charged for damage caused by his or her service animal.

(i) Miniature horses.
(a) A public entity shall make reasonable modifications in policies, practices, or procedures to permit the use of a miniature horse by an individual with a disability if the miniature horse has been individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of the individual with a disability.
(b) Assessment factors:
In determining whether reasonable modifications in policies, practices, or procedures can be made to allow a miniature horse into a specific facility, a public entity shall consider--
(1) The type, size, and weight of the miniature horse and whether the facility can accommodate these features;
(2) Whether the handler has sufficient control of the miniature horse;
(3) Whether the miniature horse is housebroken; and
(4) Whether the miniature horse´s presence in a specific facility compromises legitimate safety requirements that are necessary for safe operation.
(c) Other requirements.
Paragraphs 35.136 (c) through (h) of this section, which apply to service animals, shall also apply to miniature horses.

EXCERPT FROM SECTION-BY-SECTION ANALYSIS
AND RESPONSE TO PUBLIC COMMENTS


This section provides a detailed description of the Department´s changes to the title II regulation, the reasoning behind those changes, and responses to public comments received on these topics. The Section-by-Section Analysis follows the order of the title II regulation itself, except that, if the Department has not changed a regulatory section, the unchanged section has not been mentioned.

Breed limitations.
A few commenters suggested that certain breeds of dogs should not be allowed to be used as service animals. Some suggested that the Department should defer to local laws restricting the breeds of dogs that individuals who reside in a community may own. Other commenters opposed breed restrictions, stating that the breed of a dog does not determine its propensity for aggression and that aggressive and non-aggressive dogs exist in all breeds.

The Department does not believe that it is either appropriate or consistent with the ADA to defer to local laws that prohibit certain breeds of dogs based on local concerns that these breeds may have a history of unprovoked aggression or attacks. Such deference would have the effect of limiting the rights of persons with disabilities under the ADA who use certain service animals based on where they live rather than on whether the use of a particular animal poses a direct threat to the health and safety of others. Breed restrictions differ significantly from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Some jurisdictions have no breed restrictions. Others have restrictions that, while well-meaning, have the unintended effect of screening out the very breeds of dogs that have successfully served as service animals for decades without a history of the type of unprovoked aggression or attacks that would pose a direct threat, e.g., German Shepherds. Other jurisdictions prohibit animals over a certain weight, thereby restricting breeds without invoking an express breed ban. In addition, deference to breed restrictions contained in local laws would have the unacceptable consequence of restricting travel by an individual with a disability who uses a breed that is acceptable and poses no safety hazards in the individual´s home jurisdiction but is nonetheless banned by other jurisdictions. State and local government entities have the ability to determine, on a case-by-case basis, whether a particular service animal can be excluded based on that particular animal´s actual behavior or history--not based on fears or generalizations about how an animal or breed might behave. This ability to exclude an animal whose behavior or history evidences a direct threat is sufficient to protect health and safety.

​​Title 38: Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief

PART 17—MEDICAL
§ 17.148

​Service dogs.


​​
(a) Definitions.
​For the purposes of this section: Service dogs are guide or service dogs prescribed for a disabled veteran under this section. 

​​
(b) Clinical requirements.
VA will provide benefits under this section to a veteran with a service dog only if: 
  1. ​​​​​​The veteran is diagnosed as having a visual, hearing, or substantial mobility impairment; and 
  2. The VA clinical team that is treating the veteran for such impairment determines based upon medical judgment that it is optimal for the veteran to manage the impairment and live independently through the assistance of a trained service dog. 
    Note: If other means (such as technological devices or rehabilitative therapy) will provide the same level of independence, then VA will not authorize benefits under this section. 
  3. For the purposes of this section, substantial mobility impairment means a spinal cord injury or dysfunction or other chronic impairment that substantially limits mobility. 
    * ​A chronic impairment that substantially limits mobility includes but is not limited to a traumatic brain injury that compromises a veteran's ability to make appropriate decisions based on environmental cues (i.e., traffic lights or dangerous obstacles) or a seizure disorder that causes a veteran to become immobile during and after a seizure event. 
(c) Recognized service dogs.
VA will recognize, for the purpose of paying benefits under this section, the following service dogs:
  1. The dog and veteran must have successfully completed a training program offered by an organization accredited by Assistance Dogs International or the International Guide Dog Federation, or both (for dogs that perform both service- and guide-dog assistance). 
    ​* The veteran must provide to VA a certificate showing successful completion issued by the accredited organization that provided such program. 
  2. Dogs obtained before September 5, 2012 will be recognized if a guide or service dog training organization in existence before September 5, 2012 certifies that the veteran and dog, as a team, successfully completed, no later than September 5, 2013, a training program offered by that training organization.
    * ​
    The veteran must provide to VA a certificate showing successful completion issued by the organization that provided such program. Alternatively, the veteran and dog will be recognized if they comply with paragraph (c)(1) of this section. 
(d) Authorized benefits.
Except as noted in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, VA will provide to a veteran enrolled under 38 U.S.C. 1705 only the following benefits for one service dog at any given time in accordance with this section:
  1. A commercially available insurance policy, to the extent commercially practicable, that meets the following minimum requirements: 
    * ​VA, and not the veteran, will be billed for any premiums, co-payments, or deductibles associated with the policy; however, the veteran will be responsible for any cost of care that exceeds the maximum amount authorized by the policy for a particular procedure, course of treatment, or policy year.
    * ​If a dog requires care that may exceed the policy's limit, the insurer will, whenever reasonably possible under the circumstances, provide advance notice to the veteran. 
    * ​
    The policy will guarantee coverage for all treatment (and associated prescription medications), subject to premiums, co-payments, deductibles or annual caps, determined to be medically necessary, including euthanasia, by any veterinarian who meets the requirements of the insurer. The veteran will not be billed for these covered costs, and the insurer will directly reimburse the provider. 
    * ​
    The policy will not exclude dogs with preexisting conditions that do not prevent the dog from being a service dog. 
  2. Hardware, or repairs or replacements for hardware, that are clinically determined to be required by the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist the veteran with his or her impairment.
    * ​To obtain such devices, the veteran must contact the Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service at his or her local VA medical facility and request the items needed. 
  3. Payments for travel expenses associated with obtaining a dog under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
    * ​Travel costs will be provided only to a veteran who has been prescribed a service dog by a VA clinical team under paragraph (b) of this section. 
    * ​
    Payments will be made as if the veteran is an eligible beneficiary under 38 U.S.C. 111 and 38 CFR part 70, without regard to whether the veteran meets the eligibility criteria as set forth in 38 CFR part 70. 
    Note: VA will provide payment for travel expenses related to obtaining a replacement service dog, even if the veteran is receiving other benefits under this section for the service dog that the veteran needs to replace. 
  4. The veteran is responsible for procuring and paying for any items or expenses not authorized by this section. 
    * ​This means that VA will not pay for items such as license tags, nonprescription food, grooming, insurance for personal injury, non-sedated dental cleanings, nail trimming, boarding, pet-sitting or dog- walking services, over-the-counter medications, or other goods and services not covered by the policy. 
    * ​
    The dog is not the property of VA; VA will never assume responsibility for, or take possession of, any service dog. 

(e) Dog must maintain ability to function as a service dog. 
T​o continue to receive benefits under this section, the service dog must maintain its ability to function as a service dog. If at any time VA learns from any source that the dog is medically unable to maintain that role, or VA makes a clinical determination that the veteran no longer requires the dog, VA will provide at least 30 days notice to the veteran before benefits will no longer be authorized.

(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501, 1714)


(The Office of Management and Budget has approved the information collection requirements in this section under control number 2900-0785.)

[77 FR 54381, Sept. 5, 2012]

​§ 17.154
​Dog-guides and equipment for blind.


(a) Blind ex-members of the Armed Forces entitled to disability compensation for a service-connected disability may be furnished a trained dog-guide.
  1. In addition, they may be furnished necessary travel expense to and from their places of residence to the point where adjustment to the dog-guide is available and meals and lodging during the period of adjustment, provided they are required to be away from their usual places of residence during the period of adjustment. 

(b)
Mechanical and/or electronic equipment considered necessary as aids to overcoming the handicap of blindness may also be supplied to beneficiaries defined in paragraph (a) of this section.

[26 FR 5872, June 30, 1961. Redesignated at 61 FR 21966, May 13, 1996]​​

38 U.S. Code § 1714 
Fitting and training in use of prosthetic appliances; guide dogs; service dogs​
​​

(a) Any veteran who is entitled to a prosthetic appliance shall be furnished such fitting and training, including institutional training, in the use of such appliance as may be necessary, whether in a Department facility or other training institution, or by outpatient treatment, including such service under contract, and including travel and incidental expenses (under the terms and conditions set forth in section 111 of this title) to and from such veteran’s home to such hospital or training institution.

(b) The Secretary may provide guide dogs trained for the aid of the blind to veterans who are enrolled under section 1705 of this title.
  1. The Secretary may also provide such veterans with mechanical or electronic equipment for aiding them in overcoming the disability of blindness.
(c) The Secretary may, in accordance with the priority specified in section 1705 of this title, provide—
  1. service dogs trained for the aid of the hearing impaired to veterans who are hearing impaired and are enrolled under section 1705 of this title;
  2. service dogs trained for the aid of persons with spinal cord injury or dysfunction or other chronic impairment that substantially limits mobility to veterans with such injury, dysfunction, or impairment who are enrolled under section 1705 of this title; and
  3. service dogs trained for the aid of persons with mental illnesses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, to veterans with such illnesses who are enrolled under section 1705 of this title.
(d) In the case of a veteran provided a dog under subsection (b) or (c), the Secretary may pay travel and incidental expenses for that veteran under the terms and conditions set forth in section 111 of this title to and from the veteran’s home for expenses incurred in becoming adjusted to the dog.

(Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1143, § 614; Pub. L. 93–82, title I, § 103(b), Aug. 2, 1973, 87 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 94–581, title II, § 210(a)(5), Oct. 21, 1976, 9
0
Stat. 2862; Pub. L. 96–151, title II, § 201(c), Dec. 20, 1979, 93 Stat. 1093; renumbered § 1714 and amended Pub. L. 102–83, §§ 4(a)(3), (4), (b)(1), (2)(E), 5(a), Aug. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 404–406; Pub. L. 107–135, title II, § 201(a), (b)(1), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2456, 2457; Pub. L. 111–117, div. E, title II, § 229, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3307.)

Title 40 U.S. Code
​§ 3103

​Admission of guide dogs or other service animals accompanying individuals with disabilities​​

​​(a) In General.

​Guide dogs or other service animals accompanying individuals with disabilities and especially trained and educated for that purpose shall be admitted to any building or other property owned or controlled by the Federal Government on the same terms and conditions, and subject to the same regulations, as generally govern the admission of the public to the property. The animals are not permitted to run free or roam in a building or on the property and must be in guiding harness or on leash and under the control of the individual at all times while in a building or on the property.

​(b) Regulations.
​The head of each department or other agency of the Government may prescribe regulations the individual considers necessary in the public interest to carry out this section as it applies to any building or other property subject to the individual’s jurisdiction.

​(Pub. L. 107–217, Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1143.)

Section 504
The Rehabilitation Act of 1973
​(Pub. L. 93-112, 87 Stat. 394 (29 U.S.C. 794 )), as amended.


Service animal means any dog that is individually trained to do work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including a physical, sensory, psychiatric, intellectual, or other mental disability. Other species of animals, whether wild or domestic, trained or untrained, are not service animals for the purposes of this definition. The work or tasks performed by a service animal must be directly related to the individual's disability. ​​Examples of work or tasks include, but are not limited to, assisting individuals who are blind or have low vision with navigation and other tasks, alerting individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing to the presence of people or sounds, providing non-violent protection or rescue work, pulling a wheelchair, assisting an individual during a seizure, alerting individuals to the presence of allergens, retrieving items such as medicine or the telephone, providing physical support and assistance with balance and stability to individuals with mobility disabilities, and helping persons with psychiatric and neurological disabilities by preventing or interrupting impulsive or destructive behaviors. ​​The crime deterrent effects of an animal's presence and the provision of emotional support, well-being, comfort, or companionship do not constitute work or tasks for the purposes of this definition.

State means each of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Video remote interpreting (VRI) service means an interpreting service that uses video conference technology over dedicated lines or wireless technology offering high-speed, wide-bandwidth video connection that delivers high-quality video images as provided in § 35.160(d).

Wheelchair means a manually-operated or power-driven device designed primarily for use by an individual with a mobility disability for the main purpose of indoor or of both indoor and outdoor locomotion. This definition does not apply to Federal wilderness areas; wheelchairs in such areas are defined in section 508(c)(2) of the ADA, 42 U.S.C. 12207(c)(2).

[Order No. 1512-91, 56 FR 35716, July 26, 1991, as amended by AG Order No. 3180-2010, 75 FR 56177, Sept. 15, 2010; 76 FR 13285, M​​ar. 11,2011]

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